Yes, it is by far the most common endocrine disorder in the community. It affects around 15-20 % of our population. These disorders include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and thyroid nodules. Women seem to be more prone for thyroid disorders.
It is mainly due to a disorder of the immune system (which serves to protect our body) resulting in the destruction of the thyroid gland. The destruction which leads to permanent hypothyroidism and requires life long treatment. The immune system can also stimulate the gland to produce hyperthyroidism. In 30- 40 % of these people, remission of the disease is possible with medical treatment.
Hypothyroidism (resulting in deficiency of thyroid hormone) is by far the commonest form of thyroid disorder in the community and if a correct diagnosis is made then the medication (thyroxine) needs to be taken life long.
It is taken orally (by mouth) first thing in the morning. One should give at least 30 minutes after taking the tablet before one has their morning cup of tea/ coffee (plain water is fine).
Food groups (especially the brassica family of vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli) should be avoided in iodine deficient areas where endemic goitre is prevalent (your doctor can be consulted on this issue). Most parts of our country are iodine sufficient and therefore no dietary restrictions are necessary.
You should ideally see a certified Endocrinologist who is most qualified in the treatment thyroid disorders.
A surgeon who specialises in the surgical treatment of thyroid and other endocrine glands is called an Endocrine Surgeon.