FAQ's of Endocrinology

Endocrinology FAQ's

Endocrinology is study of hormones and their normal & abnormal functions.

Endocrine system consists of 7 major endocrine glands namely – Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroids, Pancreas, Adrenals, Ovary & Testis. Also included in Endocrine system are Vitamin D, Bone, Fat tissue, Muscle tissue, GI tract, Pineal gland. The major hormones produced by 7 major endocrine glands are as follows:

  • Pituitary – Growth hormone (GH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Lutenizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Adreno-cortico trophic hormone (ACTH), Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Thyroid – Triiodothyronine (T3), Tetraiodothyronine (T4)
  • Parathyroids – Parathormone (PTH), Calcitonin
  • Pancreas – Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin
  • Adrenals – Cortisol, Aldosterone, DHEAS, Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline
  • Testis – Testosterone, Estrogen
  • Ovary – Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone

Other glands and their hormones include:

  • Vitamin D
  • Pineal gland – Melatonin
  • GI tract – GLP-1, GIP and VIP
  • Bone – FGF-23, sclerostin
  • Fat tissue – Leptin, Adiponectin

Hormonal problems result from either:

  • Excess production or action of a hormone
  • Less production or action of a hormone
  • Interference of one hormone into another hormone action

Common hormonal problems include:

  • Diabetes – less production or action of Insulin
  • Hypoglycemia – more production or action of Insulin
  • Hypothyroidism – less production of thyroid hormones
  • Hyperthyroidism – more production of thyroid hormones
  • Post-menopausal osteoporosis – decreased production of Estrogen at menopause
  • Short height – less production or action of Growth hormone
  • Acromegaly/gigantism – more production or action of Growth hormone
  • Addison's disease – Less production of steroid hormone
  • Cushing's syndrome – More production of steroid hormone
  • PCOS – more testosterone in females
  • Hirsutism – more testosterone in females
  • Gynecomastia – more estrogen in males
  • Low testosterone in males
  • Hypercalcemia – more production or action of PTH hormone
  • Hypocalcemia – less production or action of PTH hormone
  • SIADH – more production or action of ADH hormone
  • Diabetes insipidus – less production or action of ADH hormone
  • High blood pressure – more production of adrenal hormones
  • Low blood pressure – less production of adrenal hormones